Color: Heartwood varies from light yellow/orange to reddish brown or yellowish brown; sapwood is light tan to yellowish white.
Grain: Closed, with high figuring; patterns range from clear to knotty.
Variations Within Species and Grades: Longleaf pine (P. palustris), shortleaf pine (P.echinata), loblolly pine (P. taeda), slash pine (P.elliottii). All have many of the same characteristics as Douglas fir. Old-growth lumber in these varieties has substantially higher density and is more stable than second-growth material.
Hardness/Janka: Loblolly and shortleaf 690, 47% softer than Northern red oak; longleaf 870, 33% softer than N. red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Above average (change coefficient .00265; 28% more stable than red oak).
Durability: Soft, fairly durable, although not as resistant to scuffs, dents and abrasions as the hardwoods. Often used for flooring, but may not be suitable for applications due to its softness.
Sawing/Machining: Good machining qualities.
Sanding: Resin in wood tends to clogs abrasives; frequent sandpaper changes are required.
Nailing: Good holding ability and resistance to splitting.
Finishing: A durable finish can help minimize wear.
Comments: Generally manufactured for flooring with no end-matching; sometimes flooring is "distressed" to create an antique look.